# Tuesday, September 18, 2018

The Microsoft Bot framework provides the IBotDataStore interface as a mechanism for storing stateful data. When you create a new Bot in Visual Studio, your application is configured by default to store data in memory using the InMemoryDataStore class.

You can see this setup in the following line of the Application_Start() method of  Global.asax.cs :

var store = new InMemoryDataStore();

This is fine for testing, but memory is fragile and temporary; so, you will want a more persistent way to store stateful data in production. You can see this by running the app we created in this article.

If we run the bot described in that article, we can connect to it with the Bot Framework Emulator; then, stop and re-start the app and connect again, as shown in Fig. 1

Fig. 1

Notice that all the stateful information is reset after the app restarts, because the app memory is flushed.

We can modify the app so that it saves stateful data to something more persistent, like Azure Storage. To do this, we must first create a new Azure storage account.

In the Azure Portal, create a new Storage account (Fig. 2). If you have never created an Azure storage account, you can find instructions here.

Fig. 2

Once the account is created, open the "Access keys" blade, as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3

Copy either of the connection strings and save it. You will need to add it to your application.

In the Bot application, open the web.config file and paste the following anywhere directly inside the <configuration> tag.

 <add name="BotAzureStorage" connectionString="StorageConnectionString" /> 

where StorageConnectionString is the connection string you copied from the Azure portal.

Open the Global.asax.cs file and find the following line:

var store = new InMemoryDataStore();

Replace this line with the following code:

var azureStorageConnectionString 
  = System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["BotAzureStorage"].ConnectionString; 
var store = new TableBotDataStore(azureStorageConnectionString);

Now, compile and run the application.

Use the Bot Emulator to connect to it. Stateful information will now be saved to a Microsoft Azure Storage table named "botdata".

Notice that as you start and stop the app, the stateful data remains the same, as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4

In this article, I showed you how to save stateful data to an Azure Storage table.

You can find this code in the SavingStateToAzureDemo folder of the Bot-Framework-Demos on my GitHub page.  

Tuesday, September 18, 2018 9:34:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Monday, September 17, 2018
Monday, September 17, 2018 9:50:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Sunday, September 16, 2018
Altan2018-45 Altan2018-50
Altan2018-52       Altan2018-55

People filled every seat and stood in the back on the 4th floor of the Irish American Heritage Center in Chicago. Some were fans, some musicians, and some were just curious to see and hear Altan.

For over 30 years, Altan has been performing and recording traditional Celtic music and Thursday evening the quartet performed a free concert as part of the World Music Festival.

For over 2 hours, they delighted the audience with music and stories; originals and traditional folk songs; reels, jigs, and ballads.

Each of the musicians - Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh (lead vocals and fiddle), Ciarán Curran (bouzouki), Dáithí Sproule (guitar and vocals), and Martin Tourish (accordion) - were masterful in their own right. But it was Ni Mhaonaigh who stole the show with her fiery fiddle playing and angelic voice.

The audience clapped along and some danced up the center aisle, Riverdance-style. By the end, we were all smiling. Those who did not know Altan and those who did not know this type of music and those who did not understand the Gaelic lyrics had been won over. And so had I. It may have been the Guinness served in the back of the room, but more likely it was the excellence of the musicians.

More photos

Sunday, September 16, 2018 9:23:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Saturday, September 15, 2018

IMG_2199Stereophonics are Kelly Jones, Richard Jones, Adam Zindani, and Jamie Morrison. But mostly Kelly Jones. Jones is the lead singer, front man, plays many guitar solos, and writes most of the band's music. This is not to say the rest of the band doesn't contribute. They provided excellent musicianship when the band took the stage at Chicago's Vic Theatre Tuesday night.

IMG_2237Tuesday night, thanks to my friend David, I got my first experience at the Vic and my first experience seeing Stereophonics.

Ramona's Flowers opened with a brief set, playing some solid melodies reminiscent of late 80s alternative rock.

IMG_2250But the theatre was full, and they came to see Stereophonics. The crowd did not just listen. They sang along to almost every song, making their voices heard above the amplification. From my vantage point near the stage, it sounded like Jones had brought a choral along to accompany him.  Stereophonics has a much larger following in the UK than in the US and I heard many British accents in the crowd.

The concert did not disappoint. From their high-energy opening "C'est La Vie" through their 6 encores, the crowd was on its feet most of the night.

IMG_2268They played original songs all night until the very end, when they closed with a rousing rendition of "Sweet Home Chicago", delighting the locals and immigrants in the audience alike.

It was a good experience for me and for the thousands of British expats who packed the theater.

Saturday, September 15, 2018 9:21:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Friday, September 14, 2018

A chatbot provides an electronic exchange between a user and a computer. For example, each exchange might consist of a question from the user and an answer from the computer or a question from the computer and an answer from the user.

As with most interactions that take place across the Internet, a chatbot is, by default, stateless - meaning it remembers nothing from one exchange to the next.

Often, we would like to remember answers from one question to the next or even from one conversation to the next. If the bot asks a person's name, that name could be used to respond to a question asked later in the same conversation; or even in a different conversation.

This is why we implement State in our bots.

There are two key issues when managing state:

  • What is the scope of the data?
  • Where is stateful information stored?

In this article, we will focus on the first question and store all state data in memory.

What is the scope of the data?

The first question we ask ourselves is: When we save the data, when and where will it be seen?

We have 3 options, corresponding to 3 properties of the context (IDialogContext Interface)

  • ConversationData. Data stored here is available to anyone within the current conversation.
  • PrivateConversationData. Data stored here is available to the current user within the current conversation.
  • UserData. Data stored here is available to the current user in any conversation. This means he/she can come back the next day and the bot will remember his/her data.

Each of the 3 options above is a property of the IDialogContext interface. The context object, which is passed into the MessageReceivedAsync, implements this interface, so we can read and write to the appropriate storage by reading and writing to objects stored in context.

Below is a simple example that reads to and writes from the three different storage options.

private async Task MessageReceivedAsync(IDialogContext context, IAwaitable<IMessageActivity> result)
	var message = await result;
	var channelId = message.ChannelId;
	var conversationId = message.Conversation.Id;
	var userId = message.From.Id;

	var currentTime = DateTime.Now;

	DateTime firstLoginTimeThisConversationAnyUser = DateTime.MinValue;

	context.ConversationData.TryGetValue<DateTime>("FirstLoginTime", out firstLoginTimeThisConversationAnyUser);
	if (firstLoginTimeThisConversationAnyUser == System.DateTime.MinValue)
		firstLoginTimeThisConversationAnyUser = System.DateTime.Now;
		context.ConversationData.SetValue<DateTime>("FirstLoginTime", firstLoginTimeThisConversationAnyUser);

	DateTime firstLoginTimeEverForCurrentUser = DateTime.MinValue;
	context.UserData.TryGetValue<DateTime>("FirstLoginTime", out firstLoginTimeEverForCurrentUser);
	if (firstLoginTimeEverForCurrentUser == System.DateTime.MinValue)
		firstLoginTimeEverForCurrentUser = currentTime;
		context.UserData.SetValue<DateTime>("FirstLoginTime", firstLoginTimeEverForCurrentUser);

	DateTime firstLoginTimeCurrentConversationCurrentUser = DateTime.MinValue;
	context.PrivateConversationData.TryGetValue<DateTime>("FirstLoginTime", out firstLoginTimeCurrentConversationCurrentUser);
	if (firstLoginTimeCurrentConversationCurrentUser == System.DateTime.MinValue)
		firstLoginTimeCurrentConversationCurrentUser = currentTime;
		context.PrivateConversationData.SetValue<DateTime>("FirstLoginTime", firstLoginTimeCurrentConversationCurrentUser);

	var output = $"User: {userId}\nConversation: {conversationId}\nChannel: {channelId}\n\n";
	output += $"A user logged into this converstaion at {firstLoginTimeThisConversationAnyUser}.\n";
	output += $"You first logged into any conversation at {firstLoginTimeEverForCurrentUser}.\n";
	output += $"You first logged into this conversation at {firstLoginTimeCurrentConversationCurrentUser}.";
	await context.PostAsync(output);


  Listing 1

Notice that we are checking each time to see if any new data is returned from a name-value pair ("FirstLoginTime"). If nothing is stored in a value, it will return DateTime.MinValue, which signifies an empty date. In this case, we set the value to the current time.

You can test this with the Bot Framework Emulator (available here and described here).

You can download a Visual Studio Solution that uses the code in Listing 1 from the SavingStateDemo of the Bot-Framework-Demos on my GitHub page.

Launch your bot from Visual Studio and connect to it with the Emulator. Type any message into the textbox and press [ENTER], as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1

You should see information about the user, channel, and conversation; along with the value just stored for the when users (including you) logged into this (or another) conversation. Notice all 3 values are the same because this is your first conversation and you are the first user in this conversation.

Again, type any message in the textbox and press [ENTER]. The values have not changed because they were set as stateful data last time (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2

You can start a new conversation by clicking the ENPOINT on the left, opening a new tab. Type something into this tab's textbox and press [ENTER] (Fig. 3)

Fig. 3

Notice that the user is the same, but the Conversation ID is different.

Therefore, the bot updated the ConversationData and the PrivateConversationData values, but not the UserData value.

In this article, I showed you how to save stateful data from a conversation using the Microsoft Bot Framework.

Friday, September 14, 2018 9:42:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Thursday, September 13, 2018

GCast 13:

Azure Media Services: Closed Captioning

Generate and add closed captioning to your video with Microsoft Azure Media Services.

Thursday, September 13, 2018 7:11:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Wednesday, September 12, 2018

In the previous articles, I showed how to create a new chatbot using the Microsoft Bot Framework and I explained the relevant code in the sample chatbot you created.

In this article, I will show how to extend your bot by adding a new dialog.

Launch Visual Studio and create a new project based on the "Bot Builder Echo Bot", as shown in Fig. 1

Fig. 1

From the Visual Studio menu, select Build | Rebuild Solution.

In the Visual Studio Solution Explorer, right-click the "Dialogs" folder and select Add | Class from the context menu, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

A dialog displays, allowing you to name and add a new class, as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 3

Enter a name for this dialog class. I chose "TimeDialog.cs", because I plan to add code to display the current time. Click the [Add] button to create this class.

An editor with the default code in it displays. The default code is in Listing 1.

namespace MyBotWithDialog.Dialogs
    public class TimeDialog

Listing 1

Above the class declaration, add the [Serializable] tag.

After the class name, add the following to derive from the IDialog interface.

: IDialog<object>

The IDialog interface requires one method: StartAsync. Add this method as shown in Listing 2.

        public Task StartAsync(IDialogContext context)

            return Task.CompletedTask;

Listing 2

Notice that StartAsync asynchronously calls MessageReceivedAsync, so you will have to add this method, as shown in Listing 3.

        private async Task MessageReceivedAsync(IDialogContext context, IAwaitable<object> result)
            var activity = await result as Activity;

            // Calculate something for us to return
            int length = (activity.Text ?? string.Empty).Length;

            // Return our reply to the user
            await context.PostAsync($"The time is now {System.DateTime.Now}!");


Listing 3

Note that the output sent back to the channel is a string containing the current time.

Finally, you will need to add using statements at the top to resolve any errors. Add the following to the top of the file.

using Microsoft.Bot.Builder.Dialogs;

using Microsoft.Bot.Connector;

Listing 4

When you are finished, the class should look like Listing 5 below.

using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.Bot.Builder.Dialogs;
using Microsoft.Bot.Connector;

namespace MyBotWithDialog.Dialogs
    public class RootDialog : IDialog<object>
        public Task StartAsync(IDialogContext context)

            return Task.CompletedTask;

        private async Task MessageReceivedAsync(IDialogContext context, IAwaitable<object> result)
            var activity = await result as Activity;

            // Calculate something for us to return
            int length = (activity.Text ?? string.Empty).Length;

            // Return our reply to the user
            await context.PostAsync($"The current time is {System.DateTime.Now}!");


Listing 5

Next, modify the controller to point to your new Dialog. Open MessageController.cs and find the following line of code.

await Conversation.SendAsync(activity, () => new Dialogs.RootDialog());

Replace this line with the following:

await Conversation.SendAsync(activity, () => new Dialogs.TimeDialog());

Now, build and run your bot. When it loads, use the Bot Framework Emulator (available here and described here) to test it.

Connect to your Bot from the Emulator and enter any text in the "Type your message" textbox and press ENTER.

The bot should respond by displaying the current date and time, as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 4

In this article, I showed how to create and use a new Dialog class to an Bot Builder Echo Bot project. You can find this code in the NewDialogDemo of the Bot-Framework-Demos on my GitHub page.

Wednesday, September 12, 2018 9:41:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Tuesday, September 11, 2018

An Azure storage account gives you the ability to create, store, and manage tables, queues, blobs, and files.

Azure Storage Services

Available Azure storage services are:


A blob is any unstructured or semi-structured object that you want to store. Examples include videos, images, and text files. Blob storage is flexible for storing an object without the system having to know much about the object.


Azure Files allow you to store files to Azure and access them as a file share using the standard SMB protocol. Files are built on top of Azure Blob Storage.


Azure Table Storage provides a simple NoSQL database for your application. Data in an Azure Table is stored as rows. Each row contains a key and one or more properties. You do not need to pre-define these properties beforehand and you can define different properties for different rows in the same table.


A queue is a popular mechanism for designing asynchronous applications. One application can drop a message onto a queue and another application can pick up that message later and process it. This decoupling allows for scalability, flexibility, and faster response times.

Creating an Azure Storage Account

To create a new Azure Storage Account, navigate to the https://portal.azure.com.

Click the [Create a resource] button; then select Storage | Storage account - blob, file, table, queue from the menu, as shown in Fig. 1

Fig. 1

The New Storage Account blade displays, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

At the "name" field, enter a unique name for your storage account. You will be able to access this account through a REST API by sending requests to


where accountname is the name you enter for your account.

At the "Deployment model" radio button, select "Resource manager".

At the "Account kind" dropdown, select "Storage (general purpose)"

At the "Location" dropdown, select a location in which to create your account. To minimize latency, you should create an account either near you or near the users and applications that will access the data in this account.

At the "Resource Group" field, click the "Create new" link to display the "Create Resource Group" dialog, as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3

Enter a unique name for your new resource group and click the [OK] button to close the dialog and return to the previous blade.

Review your Storage Account settings and click the [Create] button to create your new storage account.

After a few seconds, you will be able to access the properties of your Storage Account, manage the account, and connect to the account.

The "Overview" tab (Fig. 4) displays information about the account, along with links to create and manage Blobs, Files, Tables, and Queues.

Fig. 4

Click the "Blobs" link in the "Services" section of the "Overview" tab to create and manage blobs and containers, as shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5

Click the "Files" link in the "Services" section of the "Overview" tab to create and manage files, as shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6

Click the "Tables" link in the "Services" section of the "Overview" tab to create and manage tables , as shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7

Click the "Queues" link in the "Services" section of the "Overview" tab to create and manage queues, as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8

Azure Storage gives you many option for storing data in the cloud.

Tuesday, September 11, 2018 9:37:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Monday, September 10, 2018
Monday, September 10, 2018 9:29:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Sunday, September 9, 2018

I may be the last person in America to see Billy Joel in concert. Despite not releasing an album in over two decades, Joel tours almost constantly, routinely filling stadiums and arenas. Recently, he performed a record 100th time at Madison Square Garden alone.

And Friday night, he performed for the seventh time at Wrigley Field in Chicago - also a concert record for this venue.

And I was there.

IMG_2164I bought my first Billy Joel album ("The Stranger") in 1977 and played it until the grooves ran out. It was one of the first albums I bout and I memorized every song. Joel must have known I was coming because he played six songs ("Movin' Out (Anthony's Song)", "Scenes from an Italian Restaurant", "Vienna", "Only the Good Die Young", and "She's Always a Woman") from "The Stranger". Interestingly, he did not play "Just the Way You Are", one of the biggest hits of the year.

In fact, he drew from nearly every one of his 12 studio albums. With 33 Top 40 hits and 23 Grammy nominations, he could not play all his hits; but he did play for two and a half hours, delighting a full crowd at the baseball stadium. He combined big hits like

and a surprising aria written by Puccini and sung by his guitarist Mike DelGuidice. Joel also brought background singer Crystal Taliefero to the front to sing "RESPECT" an Otis Redding composition made famous by the late Aretha Franklin.

He left the audience feeling appreciated by not only mentioning Chicago, but by playing parts of Sinatra's "Chicago (My Kind of Town)" twice during his set. His drummer wore a Cubs jersey and shouted "Good luck in the playoffs!" as he left the stage.

For me, the highlights were a moving rendition of "New York State of Mind", a song I've always believed that Joel never got enough credit for; and "River of Dreams" featuring its complex rhythms - a song Joel surprised us with after a series of pop songs in the 1980s.

Everyone sang along and rocked back and forth as the piano man sang his classic "Piano Man" before bowing and waving Good Night. But, of course he returned to the stage and delivered 4(!) upbeat songs for his encore.

Two and a half hours is a long time for anyone to play, particular for a singer in his 60's; but Billy Joel's voice sounds as strong as ever. And his piano playing is still outstanding. And with a solid group of musicians behind him, the crowd left satisfied.

And now that I've seen Billy Joel, I suppose that everyone has.

Sunday, September 9, 2018 7:01:00 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)